2012 - Pennsylvania (USA)

Place: Health Care

Season: Autumn/Winter

Source: Water System

Considers biofilms: Yes

Treatment used prior to the outbreak: Facilities followed the suggested maintenance measures but collected lower volumes; Swab analysis differed from the guidelines; Construction may have consumed desinfectant species

Actions in response to the outbreak: Facilities were closed; Superheating; Hyperchlorination; Instalation of a chlorine drip






Lp1; L. anisa

Sequence Type




Monoclonal Antibody Type


Pontiac, 2-negative

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Title Authors Journal Year More
The importance of clinical surveillance in detecting legionnaires' disease outbreaks: A large outbreak in a hospital with a legionella disinfection system - Pennsylvania, 2011-2012 Demirjian A., Lucas C.E., Garrison L.E., Kozak-Muiznieks N.A., States S., Brown E.W., Wortham J.M., Beaudoin A., Casey M.L., Marriott C., Ludwig A.M., Sonel A.F., Muder R.R., Hicks L.A. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2015
Prevalence of sequence types among clinical and environmental isolates of legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 in the United States from 1982 to 2012 Kozak-Muiznieks N.A., Lucas C.E., Brown E., Pondo T., Taylor Jr. T.H., Frace M., Miskowski D., Winchell J.M. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2014