1998 - Wisconsin (USA)

Place: Hotel

Season: Autumn/Winter

Source: Water System

Considers biofilms: No

Treatment used prior to the outbreak: Use of bromine; regular shock-based chlorine treatments

Actions in response to the outbreak: Unknown





L. micdadei

L micdadei

Sequence Type



Possible match

Monoclonal Antibody Type



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Title Authors Journal Year More
Pontiac Fever Due to Legionella micdadei from a Whirlpool Spa: Possible Role of Bacterial Endotoxin Fields B.S., Haupt T., Davis J.P., Arduino M.J., Miller P.H., Butler J.C. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2001
Legionellosis associated with recreational waters: A systematic review of cases and outbreaks in swimming pools, spa pools, and similar environments Leoni E., Catalani F., Marini S., Dallolio L. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2018 Legionellosis Associated with Recreational Waters: A Systematic Review of Cases and Outbreaks in Swimming Pools, Spa Pools, and Similar Environments Leoni, E.; Catalani, F.; Marini, S.; Dallolio, L. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018